Connect with us


Is This The Reason Why California Governor Bans Condom Removal During Sex? –



A California Governor, Gavin Newsom has signed into law a bipartisan bill that outlaws non-consensual condom removal, known as “stealthing”.

The new legislation adds the act to the state’s civil definition of sexual battery, making California the first US state to render stealthing illegal.

The law gives victims a clear legal remedy for the assault that Doogan, who now lives in San Francisco, suffered decades ago. And advocates say it marks a sea change for other survivors who, unlike Doogan, might now have their day in court.

“We wanted to make sure that it’s not only immoral, but illegal,” said California Assemblywoman Cristina Garcia who introduced the bill while speaking to BBC.

Garcia has been working on some version of this legislation for years. In 2017 and again in 2018, she introduced a bill that would have made stealthing a criminal offence and allowed prosecutors to seek jail time for perpetrators. These bills either died on the floor or did not get a hearing.

This new version, which amends just the civil code, passed in the California legislation with no opposition. Survivors can sue offenders for damages but no criminal charges can be brought forward.

“I still think this should be in the penal code,” Garcia told the BBC. “If consent was broken, isn’t that the definition of rape, or sexual assault?”

Legislative analysts have said that stealthing could be considered misdemeanour sexual battery, even though it is not explicitly named in the criminal code. But Garcia’s new law removes any ambiguity for civil claims which, experts say, will make it easier for survivors to pursue their cases.

“We can start to talk about it in a way where we have a common language,” Garcia said.

Garcia said she was inspired to bring the topic of stealthing to the House floor after reading a 2017 Yale Law School research paper by then-student Alexandra Brodsky – who is now widely credited with bringing the term into popular use.

Brodsky, who now works as a civil rights lawyer and is the author of Sexual Justice – which looks at how to respond fairly to sexual assault – detailed a number of stories in her paper from survivors in the context of otherwise consensual romantic or sexual relationships.

Their accounts often started the same way, Brodsky wrote. “I’m not sure this is rape but…”

They detailed their fear of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, as well as intense feelings of violation and betrayal.

But the survivors Brodsky spoke to – many of whom reported being raped previously – did not describe stealthing as equivalent to sexual assault.

People weren’t making that connection yet, Brodsky said. “I think a big part of the problem was that a lot of people thought they were the only person this had happened to,” she said.

But research shows stealthing is “depressingly common”, according to analysis from California’s Senate judiciary committee in assessing Garcia’s bill.

A 2019 paper published in the National Library of Medicine found that 12% of women ages 21 to 30 reported experience with stealthing.

Read Also;How different ladies sample their breast in order to celebrate no bra day

That same year, researchers with Monash University in Australia, found that one in three women and one in five men who have sex with men had been subjected to the practice.

And another 2019 study found that almost 10% of men reported removing a condom during sex without consent.

In her paper, Brodsky quoted a well-known stealthing blogger, who used his now-defunct site to give advice to other men on how to secretly remove condoms without attracting attention.

It’s a woman’s duty to spread their legs, commenters wrote, and a man’s right to “spread his seed”.

But while awareness of stealthing has grown, the legislative response has lagged.

Even in countries where stealthing has been deemed sexual assault – including the UK, New Zealand and Germany – it’s rarely prosecuted, in part because of difficulties in proving intent.

This is the advantage of civil suits. The burden of proof is lower than in criminal cases, and the decision to pursue a claim rests with survivors, not prosecutors.

And both Brodsky and Garcia said there’s inherent significance in the state officially labelling stealthing as an illegal act.

“Imagine what it’s going to feel like when they [survivors] see that the state of California thinks that they don’t deserve to be treated this way,” Brodsky said. “That it deserved a legal solution.”

The bill was supported by the Erotic Service Providers Legal, Educational and Research Project (ESPLERP), an advocacy organisation founded and run by Doogan.

The law will allow sex workers to sue clients who remove condoms, she said, and hopefully, pave the way for further legal protection for sex workers and other groups typically marginalised by the criminal justice system.

“[Stealthing] can happen to anybody,” Doogan said to BBC.

There’s still the problem of sexual assault cases being taken up at all. Those who make these claims are often met with “scrutiny and scepticism”, according to Brodsky.

And when it comes to stealthing, this response is intensified because, “by definition, the harm happens after they’ve consented to sex”.

But the move has been celebrated as an important first step, especially after recent efforts to pass similar legislation in New York and Wisconsin failed.

“I’m proud that California is the first in the nation, but I’m challenging other state legislators to follow and to follow quickly,” Garcia said.

If I may ask; Can this law be enacted in Nigeria?

Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Surrogate Mother What Is It In Nigeria?



Surrogate mother what is it in Nigeria? Recently, Nollywood actress Ini Edo expressed her joy over the baby girl she had via surrogacy. And she made her intention known to public.

According to her;“Yes I do have a daughter and I had her through surrogacy. The Eggs are mine and so genetically she’s my blood. I chose this path to fulfill my dream of becoming a mother,” she said.

“I opted for a donor for me and my baby’s peace of mind. Another major reason I opted for a donor is that it scares me so much when I see banter and controversies between a mother and a father over a baby in public forums or when I see the man insisting he wants his child if things don’t work out between both parties,” she said.

However, In Nigeria surrogacy is currently practiced by a few IVF/fertility clinics under practice guidelines from the Association of Fertility and Reproductive Health of Nigeria (AFRHN).

This post is intellectual property of

An assisted reproduction technology regulation that has passed first reading in the Senate permits surrogacy and allows payments for transport, medications and other expenses.

However, there is currently no legal framework regulating surrogacy in Nigeria; however there exist a system of arranged third party reproduction prevalent in the country.

As generally observed, surrogacy agreements in Nigeria are based on simple contract terms; the concern therefore is whether such contracts birthed for the purpose of surrogacy can be enforced in our national courts.

Amidst other requirements, most contracts require two key elements to make them valid and enforceable: All parties must be in agreement based on an offer and acceptance, and something of value must be exchanged to serve as a consideration (In most cases money).

But what is surrogacy and who is a surrogate mother?

How To Become A Surrogate Mother? What Is Surrogacy?

In reality, surrogacy might be part of a woman’s treatment journey if she has a medical condition that makes it impossible or unsafe for her to become pregnant and give birth.​

Surrogacy is simply defined as the practice where a woman or a surrogate carries a child for another person(s) or the commissioning or intending parents due to a prior arrangement that the child would be handed over to the commissioning parent at birth.

In addition, surrogate motherhood refers to a situation where by a third party female elects or is commissioned to carry a pregnancy on behalf of another couple, delivers a baby and hands over to the commissioning parent at birth.

How To Become A Surrogate Mother In Nigeria? Are There Types Of Surrogacy?

Yes, typically two kinds of surrogacy are discernible depending on the existence or not of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the fetus; Traditional Surrogacy And Gestational Surrogacy.

Traditional surrogacy is the practice where the surrogate mother contributes genetically to the conception of the baby by a fertilization of her own eggs via In-Vitro fertilization (IVF) process (i.e. artificial insemination of the surrogate’s egg with the commissioning father’s semen).

In contrast, gestational or host surrogacy takes place when the surrogate mother does not contribute genetically to the conception of the baby.

Here, the surrogate is strictly the carrier of the pregnancy. This means that a prior fertilized egg (embryo) is implanted into the uterus of the surrogate and the surrogate carries the pregnancy to full term.

From day one (1) till birth.

However, becoming a surrogate mother in Nigeria is a huge hassle in itself.

The lady is expected to meet a number of requirements, is bound to attend all doctor appointments, continue to take medications, and also carry a baby for some other parents for nine (9) long months.

Those still researching how to become a surrogate should be commended on their bravery.

They are instrumental in realizing a couple’s or ladies’ dream of becoming parent(s) and certainly understand what it means to them.

Take prompt assistance from some well-known surrogacy clinic that will help you in every step of the way.

Read Also;

How do I become a surrogate mother in Nigeria?

Here are certain steps that you need to follow to become a surrogate:

Decide If You Can Become A Surrogate Without Problems

The choice of being a gestational surrogate is tough, personally and also for other members of your family.

You need to weigh in the basic pros and cons of surrogacy to determine whether you are the best fit for becoming a surrogate.

Ask yourself these following questions:

  • Are you healthy enough to be a surrogate mother? Surrogacy includes a plethora of medical risks along with the effort of embryo transfer.
  • Do you meet surrogate requirements as prescribed by any government laws?
  • Are you keen to commit to the surrogacy process, almost a year or more of effort?
  • Do you have a support system to go through a difficult journey?
  • Do you want to help other people to become parents through surrogacy or motivated by compensation?

Ask these questions before you take the next step. The goal of the agency is to educate you about the entire process and its standard repercussions.

The choice for surrogacy lies on you without obligation.

Comprehensive Screening Process

If you are keen to become a surrogate, you need to ensure that you are physically and emotionally balanced and committed to becoming a surrogate.

As surrogate mothers, you need certain requirements based on ideal health and lifestyle requirements.

After meeting with the requirements, you can proceed with the next steps.

During the screening process, you would have to meet with physicians and psychologists to assess your self-disclosed medical history, inclusive of medical records, birth records derived from previous pregnancies, along with criminal background checks.

Your surrogacy specialist would ensure an extensive screening process that would check whether you can enter into this surrogacy journey or not.

Find Intended Parents

If you want to become a surrogate, you would be happy to serve the right intended parents for the baby.

You could either choose the intended parents or the agency will choose them for you.

Intended parents are mostly those who struggle for years to bear children of their own and then opt for surrogacy to achieve that dream.

Your surrogacy specialist will help you determine the right intended parents that will help you in the journey, be empathetic about your effort, and would compensate fairly for the same.

For searching the right intended parents, you need to:

  • Create your profile as a surrogate mother.
  • Locate intended parents based on preferences.
  • Understand their background through the surrogacy specialist.

Even after the agency finds the intended parents for the surrogacy, the final approval is yours.

After you finalize the intended parents, the agency will move on to the legal process.

In cases, where you have already chosen the intended parents, you can straightaway move towards the legal process.

Draft a Robust Legal Contract

To protect both your interests as well as the interests of the intended parents, you need to have your own attorney or lawyer to draft a legal contract based on surrogacy laws.

A legal contract is necessary to keep the matter legally sound and ideal to address potential complications later on.

Discuss the legal topics of surrogacy, compensation, risks, and your rights.

The intended parents’ attorney will also draft a binding contract in accordance with the mutual acceptance of both parties.

Get your attorney to review the same. Once the legal part is sorted, you are now required to undergo the medical process of becoming a surrogate!

A monthly allowance will be stipulated to help cover medical costs as mentioned in the contract.

Prepare for Hassle-free Embryo Transfer

Get ready for embryo transfer after the legal contract is signed. Embryo transfer requires the assistance of a fertility clinic, for screening and tracking your fertility.

You would need to make embryo transfer from those intended parents.

The surrogacy agency will help you and the intended parents with the process determining the best clinic to use.

Your travel and regular expenses will be carried by the intended parents as deemed in the contract.

After embryo transfer, your surrogacy will be confirmed through the pregnancy test.

The baby’s heartbeat will ensure a steady flow of monthly payments and compensation along with prenatal care fee payments.

Cost Of Surrogacy In Nigeria.

Surrogacy in Nigeria is not free anyway. However, most of the surrogate mothers are not ready to reveal the actual amount of money they collect from intending couples.

Neither was the fertility clinics and the surrogate agencies.

A surrogate mother in Nigeria may be paid between #350,000- #800,000 Naira (Three hundred and fifty thousand Naira to Eight hundred thousand Naira) by the surrogate agencies/parents of the baby.

Some even could reach up to One Million Naira, #1,000,000,000 depending on agreement, terms and conditions.

In essence, the amount of money to be collected by surrogate mothers in Nigeria depends on how experienced they are.

Surrogate Centres In Nigeria

Below are list of surrogate centres in Nigeria;

1.Surrogates Motherhood Nigeria Agency. They are in Abuja, Lagos and Port Harcourt (River State).

2.Bridge Clinic, Lagos State.

3.Omni Medical Centre And Advanced Fertility Clinic, Lagos State.

4.Mbanefo Fertility Centre, Enugu State.

5.Nordica Fertility Centre, Delta State.

6.Medical Art Centre, Lagos State.

7.Deda IVF Hospital, Abuja.

8.Care Women’s Clinic Port Harcourt, River State.

9.SaveAlife Missions, Port Harcourt, River State.

10.Regiz Fertility Clinic, Oyo State.

A Glorious Gift Of Parenthood For Those Who Need It

The intended parents usually are part of the surrogate’s pregnancy period and during birth.

Address your questions to the surrogacy specialist, who could help you clarify about the birth event as well as serve as a mediator with the intended parents, as required.

Whether you will continue to forge a relationship with intended parents, is up to you and them.

It is essential to understand what it means to become a surrogate before becoming one.

Do share with friends………..

Read Recent Posts…..

Continue Reading


Orange Benefits For Health – Doksblog



Orange benefits for health? Oranges have a very interesting history. The first set of oranges was grown in the north eastern part of India, southeast Asia and the south of China.

They first cultivated in China in 2500 BC. It was in first century AD, that Roman took young orange trees from India to Rome.

Christopher Columbus planted orange orchards in Haiti. He had bought the seeds in 1493. By year 1518, Panama and Mexico also got their first taste of oranges and shortly thereafter Brazil started growing their own and so on.

Useful Tip

Oranges like most citrus fruits, produce more juice when warmer – juice them when they are at room temperature.

Rolling the orange under the palm of your hand on a flat surface will also help to extract more juice.

Vitamin C gets destroyed fast when exposed to air, so eat an orange quickly once cut up.

Orange Benefits For Health

High in Vitamin C

Oranges are an excellent source of vitamin C. One orange offers 116.2 per cent of the daily value for vitamin C.

Good intake of vitamin C is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer as it helps to get of free radicals that cause damage to our DNA.

Healthy immune system

Vitamin C, which is also vital for the proper function of a healthy immune system, is good for preventing colds and preventing recurrent ear infections.

Prevents skin damage

Anti-oxidants in oranges help protect skin from free radical damage known to cause signs of aging. An orange a day can help you look young even at 50!

Keeps blood pressure under check

Oranges, being rich in Vitamins B6, help support the production of haemoglobin and also help keep blood pressure under check due to the presence of magnesium.

Read Also;


Lowers cholesterol

According to a study by US and Canadian researchers, a class of compounds found in citrus fruit peels called Polymethoxylated Flavones (PMFs) have the potential to lower cholesterol more effectively than some prescription drugs without side effects.

Controls blood sugar level

Fibre in oranges help by keeping blood sugar levels under control thereby making oranges a healthy snack for people with diabetes.

Moreover, oranges have simple sugars. The natural fruit sugar in oranges, fructose, can help keep blood sugar levels from rising too high after eating.

Its glycemic index is 40 and normally whatever foods fall under 50 are considered to be low in sugar. However, that does not mean you go about eating too many oranges in one go. Eating too much can spike insulin and may even lead to weight gain.

Lowers the risk of cancer

Oranges contain D- limonene, a compound that is touted to prevent cancers like lung cancer, skin cancer and even breast cancer.

Vitamin C and antioxidants present in oranges are both important to build body’s immunity – they help in fighting cancer.

The fibrous nature of the fruit also makes it cancer protective. According to a study, up to 15 per cent of cancer cases happen because of mutations in the DNA, which can be prevented with Vitamin C.

Alkalizes the body

While the basic nature of oranges is acidic before you actually digest them, they have a lot of alkaline minerals that play a role in the process of digestion.

This property of oranges is similar to that of lemons, which are without doubt among the most alkaline foods.

Good eye health

Oranges are a rich source of carotenoid. The Vitamin A present in them play an important role in keeping the mucus membranes in the eyes healthy.

Vitamin A is also responsible to prevent age-related mascular degeneration, which in extreme cases can lead to blindness. It also helps eyes to absorb the light.

Safeguards against constipation

Oranges have both soluble and insoluble fibre. This helps in keeping your intestines and stomach function smooth, preventing irritable bowel syndrome.

Additionally, the fibre helps treat constipation to a greater extent.

Orange benefits for health? Share…………..

Read Recent Posts…….


Continue Reading


My Sperm Donor Was Not A Random Person



Nollywood actress Ini Edo has dismissed the report in several quarters that the sperm donor that produced her daughter was a random person.

The movie star made this known via her Instagram Stories on Tuesday, December 7, 2021.

“My daughter’s donor isn’t just a random person. Don’t make him any more than a donor. Now y’all can focus on what’s really important in the country and leave us the hell alone,” she wrote.

She has since deleted ....

The actress’s post may be connected by a recent post where a Twitter user slammed her for revealing to the public that she had a child via surrogacy with a sperm donor.

During a recent chat with popular blogger, Stella Dimoko Korkus.

Yes I do have a daughter and I had her through surrogacy. The Eggs are mine and so genetically she’s my blood. I chose this path to fulfill my dream of becoming a mother,” she said.

When asked about the identity of the father of the child, the movie star revealed that she opted for a donor just to avoid the drama associated “between a mother and a father over a baby in public forums.”

“I opted for a donor for me and my baby’s peace of mind. Another major reason I opted for a donor is that it scares me so much when I see banter and controversies between a mother and a father over a baby in public forums or when I see the man insisting he wants his child if things don’t work out between both parties,” she said.

The movie star said she would recommend surrogacy for anyone finding it difficult to conceive.

Read Recent Posts….

Continue Reading